of South Australia
Domesticated Honey Bees
The Western of European Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera) It is the most common of all honey bees world-wide.They are social insects that vary in colour, usually from being a yellow-brown to dark brown almost black, again depending on which type. They are an excellent reliable type for honey production and are easy to manage. The European honey be can adapt to variable climatic conditions though is more susseptible to disease. They are the most preferred by all beekeepers’ today.
The Ligurian Honey Bee, originating from the Ligurian Alps, a mountainous range in northwest Italy. They were imported into South Australia in the early 1810’s. In Kangaroo Island they boast and believe that they have the last remaining pure stock of this bee to be found anywhere in the world.
The Italian Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Ligustica), which is the sub-species of the Western Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera). The Italian Honey Bee is the most widely distributed of all honey bees. They are proven to be the most reliable and adapt well to most climates except the more humid tropical regions. They are gentle bees, reproducing quickly in spring and through the summer months and are able to keep a large colony well overs the winter months provided there is plenty of both pollen and nectar available for them to survive.
The Carniolan Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Carnica) These gentle bees are a popular choice among beekeepers. They are very resistant to insect pests and can adapt their population to what food sources are available, meaning the less food there is the fewer bees there will be in the hive. They are able to do well in areas with long cold winters, but are less tolerant of hot summers.
They are about the same size as the Italian Honey Bee, but greyer in colour and are native to Slovenia, Southern Austria and parts of Croation, Bosnia and Serbia.
The Carniolan Honey Bee was introduced to Australia by the European settlers over 150 years ago.
The Russian Honey Bee is best know for their strong resistance to mites and their winter hardiness. They too are gentle bees and are excellent at collecting nectar volumes. They are however more likely to swarm than other species.
The Buckfast Bee is a strain of honey bee, that has been man made by being crossed with many strains of bees. It was first developed in the 1919 by Karl Kehrle or better known as “Brother Adam” These bees are still being bred today. They hold excellent qualities namely having prolific queens with very low swarming instincts. They possess gentleness and have a high resistance to diseases. They are great honey producers, building up rapidly in the spring and maitaining a strong colony during the entire summer. They also have the ability to winter well. Being one of the most gentle bees of all races, allowing beekeepers to work with minimal smoke and little need for protective clothing.
The Europen Dark Bee (Apis Mellifera Mellifera) Originating in the norther parts of Europe. It can be distiguished from other subspecies by its stocky body, abundant thoracal and sparse abdominal hair which is brown. They are an excitable bee and beekeepers consider them difficult to work. Because if this they are no longer considered a viable commercial enterprise. With just a handful of colonies present in Germany though larger numbers have survived in Norway, the Alps, Poland and Belgium
The Caucasion Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Caucasia)
The Caucasion Honey Bee originates from the eastern end of the Black Sea coast. These bees are noted for the length of their tongue (proboscis) being the longest of all the Millifera species. They are a lead-gray colour with a very gentle nature. They are EXTREMELY adaptable to harsh weather conditions hence the great production of propolous within the hive. This is considered a nuasance to the beekeeper making hive management more difficult where frames and boxes are glued together. They are a gentle calm bee that raise strong colonies and are strong honey producers. They have a reputation for drifting and robbing weak colonies.
The Africanized Honey Bee. (Apis Mellifera Scutella) sometimes know as the killer bees. They are well known for their aggressive and defensive nature making them the most aggressive of all other honey bees. These “killer bees” are a hybrid of the Western Honey Bee species (Apis Mellifera), orignally produced by cross-breeding the African Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Scutellata) with various European Honey Bees such as the Italian Bee and the Ilberian Bee , a Spanish bee (Apis Mellifera Iberiensis).
They were first introduced to Brazil in the 1950’s in an effort to increase honey production, but in 1957, 26 swarms accidentally escaped quaratine. Since then the species has spread throughout South America and arrived in North America in 1985. Their aggressive nature make them react to disturbances faster than any other bees and they can chase a person 400metres . They have killed some 1,000 humans and also have been known to kill horses and other animals. The Aficanized Honey Bee are great honey producers and have proven to be very resistant to diseases. It is unfortunate that they also have a very high swarming rate.